tv Diana Preston on A Higher Form of Killing CSPAN May 28, 2015 8:00pm-9:10pm EDT
[inaudible conversations] >> coming up on booktv in prime time books about waging war. next diana preston and her book, "a higher form of killing: six weeks in world war i that forever changed the nature of warfare." then andrew coburn and his book about the history of drone warfare "kill chain." and authors gabriela blum and benjamin wittes discuss future of violence about what happens when civilians gain access to advanced military technology. ..
in the national museum for world war i the memorial was honored in december of 2014. it's honored by both the united states national museum and memorial. it's in the prestige that comes from the congress actually passed something. [laughter] >> that might be the most distinguished action of the bicameral bipartisan bill. >> we are also pleased to welcome the speaking union and are grateful for the generous support for the fund of the project. i'm especially pleased to english speaking union cosponsors on a 60-kilometer by craig on sunday when i stopped at a break at a school where we
were having a drink one of the students asked me if they spoke british and australian. [laughter] >> then it was 100 years ago the world was forever changed by the catastrophe of the 21st century world war i and we lived in the shadow experiencing its effect to this very day. >> it's more particularly who is killed. in the summer of 1915. those who were targeted and killed. the first speaker identifies the pivotal events. the use of poison gas the
targeting of the munitions on board as evidenced by the cargo manifest that is currently on display in the main gallery main gallery and the fifth one in london. the rules changed and they are still fluid to this very day. we are pleased to welcome diana after which there will be a brief q-and-a period. c-span will be filming this. they study modern history where she became involved in journalism. involving "the wall street journal" and the "los angeles
times". in the television documentaries. so ladies and gentlemen, please join me in welcoming tonight's speaker. i'm pleased to be i am pleased to be at the museum with you this evening. during the stages of the first world war as you have been hearing the three pivotal events happened which signaled a change in electoral warfare and that's what i would like to discuss with you this evening. it's one of the ironies to go
back to before. when the first world war began attempts had been made of conferences to regulate the conduct of warfare in the so-called civilized nations. it is to such international conventions to ever really succeed. this gentleman here one of the great technical development and the representative at the hague conference certainly wasn't
convinced. all nations wants peace. and as for the humanizing he said you mustn't talk about humanizing health. the essence of the war he said is in the facility which is responsible and precipitated her out of the race. but the expression by the counterpart. the bombing of civilian areas and the great weapons including
it was a occur throughout the more. the balance between the international law is highlighting throughout the war. the balance between respect for international law. as we know, we have germany's army is being successful by 1914 they were in both the east and west on enemy territory. the enemies have stabilized the position. from switzerland to the north sea to.
how can we break the stalemate? the discussion in germany was particularly intense because the leaders needed to achieve that quick victory that had been the basis of all of the prewar planning. they were mobilizing the greater military and economic potential. it was centering on the use of three technologies aerial bombing poison gas into the use of a torpedo submarine. they considered that the new longer range submarines and the u-boats of which we see an example here he felt that he had
proved themselves already to be the most effective weapon nancy. after all they had already sunk several. he thought of them very well suited to disrupt and according to one german officer, he thought for the employment of the submarines and unrestricted board of you for -- u-boat warfare. it would send them to the bottom of the ocean with their ships. he said all shipping trade with england should cease. we have something extremely significant happening. germany announcing a campaign of
so-called unrestricted submarine warfare whereby allied shipping would be sunk in without warning in a war zone which germany declared around the british isles. this is a hatched area that we see on this diagram here. a statement agreed with consternation in the uk but also by the united states president president woodrow wilson and the secretary of secretary of state, william jennings bryan of whom mo later on. nevertheless, know that by march, 1915, german submarines were already lying outside of the british port of liverpool in northwest of england hoping to attack the lusitania. at the lusitania belonging to the largest ship still providing
a transatlantic service albeit it was in wartime. in persuading to authorize the ships to bomb london. under this gentleman here germany had a commanding lead in the technology at a time when no airplane on either side had any significant bombing capability. one german officer suggested bombing london would cause panic in the population, rendering it doubtful that the war could be continued. and another said if what we do is frightful, then you may frightful miss the germany's salvation and be taken up in the
natural press like in america to symbolize the actions in 1915. however t failed partly because the feelings for his british relations were highly ambivalent. he disliked but didn't wish to either kill them or destroy their palaces were indeed damage many of the landmarks of which he was found. of those we see here whose responsibility is covered at those airships that would do the bombing also equivocated between morality and the war expediency. he considered indiscriminate
bombing is repulsive when it kills and means women and children but he went on that if one could set fire to london in 30 places then perhaps what is owning us in the small way would give way to something fine and powerful. all that's why his that fly is coming he said, should be concentrated on the city. what about poison gas? the debate was less extensive and i think partly because it was intended for battlefield use against troops and partly because it was such a new option. no country had developed poison gas as a weapon before the war began. but the military use of chlorine by this gentleman here a german chemist who was the head of the institute in berlin.
he was working in such haste that there had been an explosion that had already killed three of his coworkers that he argued it would shorten the war producing not casualties but panic among the enemy troops. it was in the start of psychological warfare. by january 1915, they had a weapon sufficiently advanced for him to be able to demonstrate it to an enthusiastic german high command. in britain meanwhile, the answer to breaking the military stalemate was seen by this gentleman here, winston churchill at the time the first lord of the admiralty to be a landing to attack germany's ally turkey. the political head of the
admiralty and jackie fisher the professional head of the admiralty where responsible for britain's defenses both against submarines and against aerial bombardment because in the days before the severed air forces. although neither of them agreed with some british admirals that the quote, submarines were unfair and damned on english. they took very few measures to counteract the new underwater threat. what about the air attack? despite the skepticism about the airships which he described as enormous congress double and explosive gas committee recognized the possibility of the bombing raids on london and he instituted a blackout as well as positioning searchlights but beyond that there was
relatively little that he could do since the primitive aircraft at the time could scarcely reached the altitude surrounding 10000 feet at which they flew. the world's first poison gas attack came on the morning of the 22nd of april, 1915 at half past five. when the wind was favorable, german engineers opened the taps on 6,000 cylinders of chlorine gas where releasing 668 tons on french and canadian trenches. what were the effects? chlorine is a powerful returned. it damages the eyes nose throat and lungs and it causes death by sexy asian. the sickly greenish yellow cloud
was personally supervised through road data during wartime, a scientist belongs to his country. but in peace time it belongs to the world. although the french troops abandoned their positions here leaving a former white gap in the lines, the canadiens held for the german soldiers themselves. to advance field to take advantage of the breach but we have an idea of the effect of the general described seeing what he wrote as a 100 poor fellows lighting out in the church to give them all the air they could get the slowly drowning the water in their lungs. it was the most horrible sight and the doctors were quite powerless. over the next few days, we have
german troops launching further gas attacks but this time of the british as well as on the french and the canadiens. allied soldiers simply have to improvise linen cloths sometimes soaked in their urine as you to mentally barks to combat the gas. but one scottish soldier described how it felt. he said my body was covered and i was wounded in my mind and that psychological effect is exactly what had been intended. meanwhile, the war minister depicted in the poster he replied to a request from his commander in the field from the means to retaliate. saying that before we fall to
the level of the degree to german site have to submit this matter to the government. but the british government took very little time to agree to initiate the production. meanwhile he was regretting that the german high command hadn't given him enough time to build up much larger supplies. he later complained that if they had followed my advice and made a large-scale attack in step with the experiment, the fizzle he called it germany would have won the war. but meanwhile, just eight days after the first gas attack, we have a german submarine commanded by 30-year-old here leaving her north sea base. on the same day we had the
german embassy in washington sending a notice to be published in the new york papers following morning. on the first of may people sitting in their apartment opening the newspapers saw something rather strange. the german statement warning americans passengers and others not to take passage on british or allied ships at the bottom, juxtaposed with an advertisement on the same including the lusitania that very afternoon. let's take a little closer look at this notice. this is absolutely specific at the bottom saying anybody intending to sail on the ships of great britain or the allies into the war zone do so at their own risk. but very few passengers change their plans. most of them like the tall elegant figure below millionaire
standing next to the impresario charles furman but trusted in the statement by the spokesman charles sumner that the lusitania's great speed, the vastness of the atlantic which protected from threats and attacks with a by the german u-boat and they sealed. but as well as the passengers cover the lusitania was carrying perfectly legally i should say many cases of remington rifle ammunition. and it was as the ship began to near the water of the evening of the sixth of may that her captain here received a warning from the british admiralty who by this stage of the war were breaking the german naval coat and told him they were in the area that is ship was about to
enter. he warned his passengers to please not smoke on deck that night. the curtain type but they slept in the public rooms it was the next day on the seventh of may 1915 the ship the lusitania was just off the coast of ireland and that green smudge of land on the horizon i think the assured many of the passengers. however 2:10 after they have the lusitania in his site and they ordered the torpedo to fire. a lookout on the liner saw what he later called white streaks running across the surface of the water.
he said it was as if the hand was drawing on the ocean with a piece of chalk, to find streaming out behind it. the torpedo of course. a passenger felt what he called a slight shock and then a terrific explosion. we know that the column rose higher in the air and came back by secondary explosions from deep within the ship. this was a drawing done by a survivor that was later published in the illustrated london news. just 18 minutes later after immediately taking a list of the 30,000-pound ship slipped beneath the waves. they've been fairly torn from the positions and dropped into the water. men and women have left into the scene trying to swim.
it's a natural tone as if he'd asked for a slice of good and better. please, won't you help me you know i can't swim and he said looking around he saw that woman and she has a smile on her face and she was chewing gum. he pulled her in and got her to safety. but that night as another survivor wrote they were alongside queenstown. they were stacked among the coils of rope on the walls. of the 1900 people had been aboard the ship 1198 have died
including 128 citizens of the mutual united states and the children. the german government hailed for syncing as to quote from the german newspaper the triumph of the kurdish and superior technology. it was the crown prince who telegraphed his father from the western front to tell him of the great joy among the troops at the news. it was here in the 17th century courthouse just up the coast we have the irish coroner reporting the verdict of the willful
murder of the in the deaths of the victims. he received an urgent message from the british admiralty that was ordering him to holt to request for revealing the secrets. they had done more to protect the lusitania. but there's also something else at work. fisher and churchill feared incorrectly as it later turned out that the large quantities of the american rifle in the inanition being imported into ship's cargo might have exploded at the moment that torpedo hit hastening the ships and. had this been true if would have lost some of the propaganda. she had the world sympathy. they didn't want anything to be
said that would undermine that. as a result they begin orchestrating a cover-up to deceive the end of a double public inquiry that the new would be held. but meanwhile, in germany, we have this lady here, the wife of fritz, herself a chemist quarreling with her husband who just returned to berlin about the morality of his use of poison gas. in undertaking this may come three weeks after the first gas attack, we knew that she was so distressed that she took her husband's service revolver, went into the garden of the balloons over and shot herself. the same day haber nearly promoted the leftist plan for the prompt to continue and to refine the use of chlorine gas to be used as a weapon against the russians. but she soon returned to berlin to oversee work.
but it's now that we move on to the bombing campaign. in 1915 they finally permitted the bombing of london. the sports desk the next day when the 40 days after the first gas attack, 20 for since the lusitania sank and on the 303rd day of the first world war 530 feet long by 60 feet in diameter, and filled with over a million cubic feet of gas took off to attack london. one of them had to turn back and they flew on a limited top speed of just over 60 miles per hour.
bombing operators. then i pressed it and we waited. then it seemed to pass before the song of the engines rose a shadow and cascade of sparks and a bellow of incandescent smoke drifted slowly to reveal the raging fire on the face of the wounded city. the london inquest learned how the couple had been trapped by fire in the bedroom. they were discovered dead dealing by their bed as if in prayer the husbands arm around his wife. the verdict on those killed was willful murder of the sinking of the lusitania three weeks earlier. in the united states we have the
government under president wilson by now arguing about just how far to press the protests to germany about the loss of the lusitania and demand that they cease the campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare. most u.s. public opinions have been massively hostile. it was before the loss of the lusitania and one day in the cabinet he said to his colleagues. he got a very dusty response for the president. he went home that weekend to think things over and over the weekend ended he resigned knowing that it would be the end
of his political career that he would be reviled and he was current. this was typical of the sort of cartoons that appeared in the american press. what we are seeing is applauding the reasons for resigning. but meanwhile that's just this time in london in the admiralty officials were preparing their evidence to put before the official inquiry to the sinking. they were selecting and shaping the evidence. for a while they considered scapegoating that then they had the idea of suggesting suggesting what had caused the lusitania to sink so fast was that she had been sunk by two torpedoes not a single one that they knew perfectly well from the german messages have actually been fired. accordingly, they selected witnesses prepared to back up
the story. and the end. self placed the blame on germany whose submarine concluded had fired the two were more torpedoes that had hit the ship and there's a copy in this museum of the inquiry's conclusions. but meanwhile, while it had been sitting to the public in london had nervously been speculating about the possibility of another and the fears were proven correct on the 17th of august when they dropped bombs and then over london before returning unscathed this time hitting the heart of the city that some of you may know. it unsettled london even further. observers noted how will they
called a zeppelin whether the dark finite, london theaters were reporting much smaller audiences. an american reporter who was in london described one. he said among the stars it is dull yellow the color of the harvest moon the fingers and searchlights reaching up from the city touching all sides of the deaf messenger with the white tip. great beaning shakes the city. it is the sound of the bombs falling, and another onlooker reported seeing a streak of fire shooting down straight at me. he said i stared at it hardly comprehending. the bomb struck the restaurant just a few yards away then was burning in the road.
22 people were killed and the next day they demonstrated out in the streets for better protection. but what about gas? on the 25th of september, the british who had at first command germany's use just five months previously made their own military use during the battle. the attack failed. the wind changed and blew a lot of the gas back over the british troops. the wrong turning piece had been sent with 5,000 cylinders of corine so that the contents could not be released. even worse, they excluded some of the cylinders causing yet more damaging gas cheesecake to the british lines. in fact as 1915 through to a close, none of the technologies
have a decisive effect. then in spring of 1916 it was getting into the u.s. demand that the germany seized the campaign. they resigned in protest but the admiral wrote a frank and counseling letter and this is what he said you are the one german sailor that understands the war. killed were enemy without kilgore enemy without being killed herself. he said i don't blame you for the submarine business. i would have done the same myself from yours until hell freezes. however, germany of course returned against the merchant shipping later that year. president wilson again protested. this time refusing to budge and in the spring of 1917 the united states declared war
joining the allies. but although only two years have passed, we can see how potent the memory still was. this is a recruitment poster which there is a copy of the museum here. if you look at the original you will see that single word superimposed in blood red over the image of a drowning lusitania passenger. in "the new york times," news correspondents reported american troops advancing into battle shouting remember the lusitania and one contemporary commentator said that although in 1915 the lusitania failed to deliver 200 american citizens safely to liverpool that in 1917 and 1918, herb roasted delivered 2 million american troops to the western front. what is happening now with
poison gas? all participants continued to use it for the remainder of the war either released from cylinders or as gas filled artillery shells. we knew that at the conclusion that stocks of poison gases were much larger than the german ones. fritz harber continued to lead with mustard gas that caused skin burns as well as injuring eyes and lungs. scottish soldiers were affected because they refuse to wear anything other than celts on their lower bodies. but he argued that even after the end of the first world war ii quote the use of gas was a way of saving countless lives if it meant it could be brought to an end sooner. indeed, he said it was full of
killing, the title of my book. the indiscriminate bombing of london continued. eventually the performance was overtaken by that of british fighter planes and germany turned to these. the attacks led to the overstretching of the emergency services to panic among the city's inhabitants and many deaths including 18 children when the school at the east and took a direct hit. but whatever the consequences of what are the consequences of all of this after the war ended? after world war i disarmament conference is reaffirmed the ban on the use of gas but not on research or stockpiling it. this was in the 1925 credit and they also bombed the civilian areas and the sinking without
warning of merchant shipping. but of course as we go through the 1930s, we see these provisions challenged. 1936 -- i pushes this is an awful image to show you. they used mustard gas in the conquest. japan did the same in the invasion of china. worried about germany like italy might in spite of having ratified the particle might be prepared to use gas in any future conflict we have britain and france building up stocks of gas to retaliate if necessary. they also took precautions by 1938 the british, for example had issued 30 million gas masks to the public including hot respirators for babies. the greatest fear was that attacking bombers would release
gas. the district of power have again been shown a year earlier. in april, 1937 during the spanish civil war when the german and italian planes destroyed killing 1600 people into leaving to the phrase weapons of mass destruction to describe the bombs. such was the fear of the mass bombings and gas bombing in particular but when world war ii broke out in september, 1939 in britain every one was ordered always to carry a gas mask with them and children were evacuated out of london away from any new blades. one government estimate that came across was that in the first three weeks of the bombing offensive, a quarter of a million would die.
three to 4 million would flee and perhaps as many as 1 million would become psychiatric cases. of course both sides bombed extensively in world war ii. london as we see here suffered another and later both britain and the u.s. used this to destroy. the nuclear bombs destroyed hiroshima and nagasaki. such attacks were justified by gas but it is actually the worst and other methods of warfare and that would shorten the war and save many allied lives. what about the submarine warfare clicks on the opening day of the second world war winston churchill was reappointed the head of the british admiralty
again. that same day we had a german have a german submarine sinking without warning the british liner. over 100 lives were lost including 28 citizens of the new journal united states. hitler's propaganda minister accused churchill of having the bomb detonated on board to create what he called the lusitania for his own political advantage. subsequently, both sides reverted to unrestricted submarine warfare. in 1942 we have u-boats sinking 8 million tons at a time when allied shipyards could only turn up some 7 million. it was only improvements in underwater detection is the reins and increased air cover that brought victory in the battle of the atlantic.
no country either acts in the second world war except for japan and china. it is perhaps the first example of a success of mutual deterrence. but have churchill ever seriously considered using gas? the answer is yes. as prime minister in 1940 he planned for the possible use of poison gas as a last resort against any german invasion. and later he shot off a memorandum which actually came to nothing but said this i want you to think very seriously over the question of using poisonous gas. he went on i wouldn't use it unless it would be shown that it was life or death or that it would shorten the war by a year. he said it is absurd to consider morality on the topic. in the last war the bombing was
forbidden, not everybody does it as a matter of course. it is simply a question of fashion changing as it does between long and short skirts for women. but the president roosevelt resisted the popular u.s. callers to use gas against japan expressed in the press headlines that isn't to say there were not any british or american casualties. they wanted gas supplies at hand to gas supplies at hand so they could retaliate against any use. in december, 1943, the ss john harvey was lobbying in italy with cargo on board. 100 german bombers attacked the
port hitting the ship and releasing a significant amount of gas, nearly 2,000 people military and civilian died directly because of the gas. today that 1925 protocol that i mentioned actually not ratified by the u.s. until the 1970s prohibiting the use of chemical weapons remains in force but as we all know, poison gas has been used since the second world war. a number of examples of it. in the yemeni civil war in the 1960s, by iraq in the 1980s the most infamous use of gas i apologize when i was talking about the attack the most infamous poison gas attack was against its own population.
here in march of 1988 when 5,000 were killed. iraq undoubtedly possessed poison gas during the 1991 gulf war but didn't use it and after the war iraq agreed to give up its weapons of mass distraction and many were destroyed. however, allied to suspicion that had retained some of the key stated reason for the 2003 invasion of iraq. after the second gulf war the only wmd discovered was some 500 aged mustard gas shells. in 1997, we have the u.s. the ussr and others including the uk bringing into force a new the new chemical weapons convention prohibiting research on into the use of such weapons and
mandating the digital description. could destruction. but of course we will see the reports in the news and in the civil war in syria they have been used. as for the submarines after the second world war, submarines became an increasingly important part of the nations. here we have the british tried and much under debate at the moment back in the uk. as for the bombing of continuous of course to be used. states came with greater degrees of justification. nevertheless, they continue to be made with the damage accepted as inevitable consequence of the
understandable preference to deploy air power rather than to expose them to greater hazards. looking back they still remain a resident milestones and in 1918 this gentleman here the american philosopher commented that the one phase that is likely permanently to remain is the systematic utilization of the scientific expert. by the military use of poison gas they lost their innocence a
fact underlined by the manhattan project and the second war and the potential today for biological weapons. what i want to leave the last two albert einstein who said this some years after the end of the first world war but it is become appallingly obvious that our technology has exceeded our humanity and we can only hope i think that he was wrong. and thank you so much. >> spigot this time i would like to invite michael preston who is the co-author to come up for the time of question and answer and you will notice on either side of the auditorium down at the
bottom of the stairs there are two microphones and i would ask that you would come down. if you were able to walk down the stairs i can come to you. >> i want to thank you for a wonderful presentation. that was very nicely done. next month i'm going to be going to the imperial war museum and i understand there's five and the one i'm thinking about heads to the aviation. are there ones that specialize world war i or topic that you've talked about?
>> it's a magnificent place to go to particularly at the moment. >> thank you very much. >> the germans seem to have a propensity to breaking international law. but what was the reaction from the rest of the world when these advanced these three events that you talked about tonight what was the reaction from the rest of the world if there was any? >> when we talk about the rest of the world at his best it is best to see the natural world because response of the allies would be predictable. but the new journal world was shocked by the lusitania with so many women, children on board
and very shocked by the aerial bombardment of london because after all this was a direct attack on civilians that's one that still retains today as it did at the time. it's something you can't necessarily see at the time something that you might feel the effects very long after from that of the the same time of course in the countries that were at war if they saw the weapon of gas being used on the battlefield we have to have the same. >> i've always thought of it as kind of silly maybe because they seem so dangerous to me from
what i've heard. did they make it a program of their own? >> they did make some attempts to build airships that were conspicuously unsuccessful. >> it was never really taken seriously. and as i just touched about in the talk they tried to put their effort into developing better fighter planes to deal with the zeppelins because first of all that seemed to people something that isn't quite real if you read the letters and diaries of those but with this they say drifting across the sky is above london it seemed like something fantastical. people even wrote about the beauty of these objects until they began to fall and the reality begin to hit and again you see it from the letters and diaries of the psychological impact it had. the people no longer felt safe
>> in the head peace treaty of 1904 i thought there was also the size of the poisonous gas and submarines there was an explosive ammunition part of that. and, of course all the killing that took place with the artillery, i wonder if you could elaborate on that. >> basically what was banned in the 1st take convention was the use of dumdum bullets. what was basically banned in the 3rd hague convention of 1899 the use of dumdum bullets which exploded in the body creating a bigger mess with then it. they continue to be banned's among others by the british and conflicts before the 1st world war's.
ordinary explosive shells in the terms of artillery shells explosives developed and were not banned in that sense. >> i read a little bit about his role. have some excellent photographs of them. those are fantastic. where did you get source on those? >> we did quite a little work and archives in berlin's, the collection which have been brought together. when the intellectual heart at the time. the institute. those aegis of the overall archives. papers and photographs
command we had quite a lot of assistance from the archivists who are able to talk to about the duality. and what later happened to him. of jewish background in 1933 and came to england. found himself rejected and an outcast's no longer allowed to enter. >> i remember reading that part. it was an interesting part of his history the fact that he was jewish. that happened a lot to my understand a lot of brilliant jewish scientists that left left and not all of them did leave, which was pretty fortunate. >> very good that some of them left as they were the
ones who helped develop the atomic weapons here rather than anywhere else. >> goes back to somebody's question. when he did come had set up a trust to help jewish colleagues find jobs at academic institutions in the united kingdom's. perfectly prepared. a leading member of the establishment not prepared to shake his hand because he was the 1st user of poison gas. >> other more question still out there? there will be time afterwards is. one last question. >> a been watching this documentary on netflix, 14 diaries of war about the world war i.
talked about how overtime the tactic changed like not killing the enemy but exhausting them, the psychological effect as well exhausting them and draining the british and french treasuries to care for them. when did that become the norm? >> it was always part of the tactic. psychologically. and then as the years went on basically by getting the troops wearing gas masks come on the lookout to have some stress and to make the ability much less. that came. very clever.
they were trying to in their eyes and pull the mess off. is the greatest benefit that that we kill people week in the mile. >> some of the things right at the beginning. psychological imponderables. there would always be doubt about whether this should be deployed against them. he could be varied debilitating. it's. [applause] >> thank you.
>> ladies and gentlemen it has been a rich evening. i want to draw your attention to a knew exhibition that arrive just last weekend. one of the most comprehensive exhibitions that the museum has curated with more than 20 countries represented in exhibition. more than 150 objects include many of the things we discussed year deck chairs from the lusitania, various gas masks and gas within products. more than 150 objects only one has been previously exhibited. it is quite an extraordinary exhibition. just to brief comments' about memorial day weekend. two things to say during that weekend we have an 80 percent scale replica of the vietnam war. 400 feet long on the south
lawn open throughout the weekend friday through monday. we invite you to bring your friends to that. also memorial day 10:00 a.m. primary ceremony and the museum on that day will be opened without charge. we invite we invite you to be a part of that. check out the website for a a full list of more than 20 activities during the memorial day weekend. please join me again in thanking our guests for deeply engaging. you will hear her soon on mpr. thank you. [applause] >> on the next washington journal national journal correspondent discusses a proposal to increase broadband access.